Identification keys and general biology are given in Nielsen (1932), Spradbery (1973), Felton (unpublished), Richards (1980) and Yeo & Corbet (1995).
Throughout England and Wales including the Isle of Man, Lundy Island, Isles of Scilly and into Scotland north to Aviemore (Moray) and Aberdeen. Not found in Ireland. There are some old records from the Channel Islands.
Overseas, found in many parts of mainland Europe (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, The Netherlands, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Poland, Austria, Armenia), North Africa (Morocco) and Asia (Iran, Turkestan, Manchuria, but not Japan).