BWARS Maps and Species Concepts

There have been quite a few developments in how BWARS deals with species - primarily moving to a species concept basis. Simply put, this relates the interpretation of a name to a publication, which in turn relates to the type specimen. A more complete illustration can be found in the downloads on this page.

All data received, verified and validated by BWARS up to December 2017 has been mapped. Owing to technical difficulties these are currently downloadable as a folder from the URL given below. This is a fairly large file and download may take a little while.

We would be very grateful for any comments regarding these maps. There are always errors which creep in, your vigilance in pointing these out is greatly valued.

Some modern papers which relate to some of the changes in species concepts are also available as downloads here.


All the species maps can be downloaded as a zipped folder HERE It is recommended that a laptop or desktop computer is used to download these files. Most mobile devices will probably fail to download the files correctly.

Note: The maps are svg files which can be viewed in your internet browser. You will need to download, from Google Drive, a zipped folder contaning all the svg files. Google Drive may display a warning that it is unable to scan the files for viruses, but it is safe to download the folder.


  • Black dots are 1990 to present,
  • grey dots 1960 up to 1989,
  • open ones pre 1960.


Species or Species concept? - an explanation of the names used by BWARS
Species concept dictionary - pdf BWARS 2019
Species concept dictionary - spreadsheet BWARS 2019
Species concepts: Notes and references for Species Concept Dictionary comments (BWARS 2017) doc link

Evolution of Aculeates: Branstetter, M.G. et al. Phylogenomic Insights into the Evolution of Stinging Wasps and the Origins of Ants and Bees


Lasius: Seiffert, B., A Taxonomic Revision of the Palaearctic Members of the Ant Subgenus Lasius s. str. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Ponera: Csősz, S. and Seifert, B. Ponera Testacea Emery, 1895 Stat. N. – A Sister Species of P. Coarctata (Latreille, 1802) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

Stenamma: Dubois, M.,B. A Revision of the Ant Genus Stenamma in the Palaearctic and Oriental Regions

Tapinoma: Seiffert, B. Clarifying naming and identification of the outdoor species of the ant genus Tapinoma FÖRSTER, 1850 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Europe north of the Mediterranean region with description of a new species


Nomada facilis: Notton, D.G. and Norman, H. Hawk's-Beard Nomad Bee, Nomada facilis, New to Britain (Hymenoptera: Apidae)


Social Wasps: Dvořák, L. &  Roberts, S.P.M. Key to the paper and social wasps of Central Europe (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

Chrysididae Key: Paukkunen, et al.An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries,
with description of a new species

Spilomena: Vikberg, V.V. A re-evaluation of five European species of Spilomena with a key to European species and relevance to the fauna of North Europe, especially Finland (Hymenoptera: Pemphredonidae)