An Holartic species, although probably introduced to North America. It is widely distributed in Europe, but scarcer in the north (Lomholdt 1975-76). A key to European species groups of the genus Passaloecus is given by Merisuo (1974).
Distinguished from other Chrysis species in having four distinct acute teeth on the posterior margin of the third gastral tergum, and the first gastral tergite is blue-black. Identification keys are given in Morgan (1984). Information concerning general biology is given by Kunz (1994).
One of three large species of Priocnemis with plentiful erect hair on the face and propodeum (subgenus Umbripennis). P. perturbator is often found at the flowers of Wood spurge, Euphorbia amygdaloides, in woodlands during May. Identification is given in Day (1988). Many early records for this species may be confused with those for its close relative P. susterai Haupt.
Females of this species are readily confused with Priocnemis pusillus, P. cordivalvata and P. gracilis, although the males are readily distinguishable. Keys to species and general biology are given in Richards & Hamm (1939), Wolf (1972), Day (1988) and Falk (1991).
A medium sized, long-cheeked social wasp which is the most common species of the genus Dolichovespula in Britain.
Previously known as Hedychrum nobile, a misidentification, and H. aureicolle Mocsary. Identification keys and general biology are given in Morgan (1984), Falk (1991) and Kunz (1994).
A very similar species - Hedychrum nobile - was recently discovered in Britain. The separation of H. niemelai and H. nobile is described in this paper
Previously known as H. intermedium, a misidentification. Identification keys and general biology are given in Morgan (1984), Falk (1991) and Kunz (1994).
One of our most frequently encountered red and black spider-hunting wasps, perhaps because it spends a lot of time searching open sunny ground for nesting host species.
Keys and general biology are found in Sladen (1912), Free & Butler (1959), Alford (1975) and Prŷs-Jones & Corbet (1991). Until recently this species was known as Psithyrus sylvestris, but Psithyrus has now been reduced to a sub-genus within Bombus. The bee bears little clear resemblance to any of its probable host species in the Bombus pratorum group.