Vespa alascensis PACKARD1870; Vespa communis DE SAUSSURE 1857; Vespa pseudogermanica STOLFA 1932; Vespa sexcincta PANZER 1799; Vespa westwoodii SHIPP 1893
Similar to V. germanica in England, but more widely distributed in Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Recently recorded from Orkney and Shetland.
Common in Europe and Palarctic Asia as far north as the Actic Circle, and east to Japan. In North America, it is found from about 69°N in Canada, south to New Mexico and northern Georgia. It was introduced into south-eastern Australia and New Zealand, where it has become an important pest. This wasp also occurs in Hawaii (Maui Island, above 1200m) (Archer 1998, Edwards 1980).