Updated version December 2022. The Vespine key on the BWARS website has been extensively revised for many of the male characters, most notably the males of V. rufa, V. germanica and V. vulgaris. The markings on these species are very variable and the only reliable way of separating them is by looking at the genitalia of dead specimens, in particular the shape of the central 'tongue' or adeagus.
There have been small alterations elsewhere in the text.
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