Apis rustica GEOFFROY 1785; Apis fusca CHRIST 1791 (nec. SCOPOLI 1763); Apis fuscescens VILLERS 1789; Apis hirundinaria CHRIST 1791; Osmia pyrenaea LEPELETIER 1841; Osmia fusca GISTEL 1857; Osmia rufitarsis SMITH 1879; Osmia monachiensis STRAND 1917
The males of this species are among the first of the solitary bees to appear in the spring, with one exceptional record as early as late February. They are shortly followed by the distinctive females.
Distributed predominantly in southern England and south Wales, the range being closely correlated with chalk and limestone soils. This is a predominantly central European species, becoming rare and sporadic north of Belgium. The Palaearctic range extends from southern Finland (one record only (Elfving, 1968)) to Spain, and east to the former Yugoslavia and Romania. Stoeckhert (1933) records the species from central Asia and reports that both there and in southern Europe it is largely restricted to montane sites.