British specimens of the wingless females have black heads, whereas, in Ireland and the Isle of Man, the females have red heads (Stelfox, 1933;Yarrow, 1954a). All males are winged and have black heads. Identification keys are given by Richards (1980) and Yeo & Corbet (1995).
Found throughout England and Wales including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, but not yet found in Scotland. Recorded widely in southern Ireland, and in addition to the information shown on the map, it has also been reported from County Tipperary (Stelfox, 1933).
Overseas, found in many parts of Europe (The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Poland, former Czechoslovakia, Austria, former Yugoslavia and Estonia) and in Asia (Iran and Siberia).